Early Colonial Settlers of Southern Maryland and Virginia's Northern Neck Counties

Martin Marshall

Male 1749 - 1824  (74 years)

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  • Name Martin Marshall  [1
    Born 7 Dec 1749  Lyons Creek 100, Calvert County, Maryland Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died 19 Sep 1824  Stokes County, North Carolina Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I040016  Tree1
    Last Modified 21 May 2019 

    Father Thomas Marshall,   b. Abt 1719, Lyons Creek 100, Calvert County, Maryland Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F21246  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Eleanor Boswell,   b. 27 Oct 1760, Albemarle County, Virginia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 8 Feb 1820, Stokes County, North Carolina Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 59 years) 
    Married Abt 1779  Albemarle County, Virginia Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Last Modified 21 May 2019 
    Family ID F22848  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Notes 
    • Friends of the Union Church
      The Descendants of William Marshall (1650-1686) & Elizabeth Cox (1650-1717)
      by Michael L. Marshall
      Most of the Marshalls from this area of Forsyth County, North Carolina descend from Martin Marshall who is buried in an old family cemetery not far from here. He was born December 7, 1749 in Calvert County, Maryland and died in what was then Stokes but is now Forsyth County, North Carolina, September 18, 1824.

      The Marshalls of Calvert County descend from William Marshall who was transported into the Province of Maryland about 1671 by a man named John Pawson. Pawson was a merchant from York, England, who also had business ventures in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. The ship that brought Marshall to Maryland was called the Nightingale of Hull, whose master or captain was John Hobson. Hull is a city located in the English County of Yorkshire on the north shore of the Humber estuary, at the influx of the Hull River. It was and still is a major port for shipping. It is also close to York where Pawson had his business.

      Sixteen other indentured servants were brought into Maryland with Marshall, and Pawson was entitled to 50 acres of land for each of them. In those days, it was common for merchants to transport headrights along with commercial goods on the voyage over from England, and then fill the ship with tobacco for the return trip.

      The Maryland Historical Magazine contains a list of ship arrivals in Maryland from the first settlement in 1634 to 1679. Among those listed are the Nightingale of Hull and another called the Nightingale of York. There are also references to these same ships (some listing John Hobson master and others listing Joseph Hobson master) in the records compiled by the Virginia Colonial Records project for the years 1670 to 1672, so these two ships were carrying on a busy trans-Atlantic business at the time Marshall was brought over.

      Some time after arriving in Maryland with his 17 indentures, Pawson assigned the land rights associated with 13 of them to John Homewood of Anne Arundel County and his rights to the other 4, including William Marshall, to John Meares of Calvert County. This assignment entitled Homewood to 650 acres of land and Meares to 200 acres, and both men appeared in the Maryland land office on May 23, 1671 to record their assignments from Pawson. Meares later assigned his rights to Phillip Thomas of Anne Arundel County who used them to apply for a land grant of 200 acres in Baltimore County on September 2, 1672.

      It turns out that Homewood, Mears and Thomas were connected: Phillip Thomas had a daughter, Sarah, who was the wife of John Meares. Also, John Meares had a sister, Sarah, whose first husband was John Homewood. Several of these families had originally been Puritans when the Puritans arrived in Maryland in the 1640s, although Phillip Thomas became a Quaker in 1658. Interestingly, the Homewood and Meares families were also connected with James Cox, one of the first Puritan settlers of Anne Arundel County, and it is believed by some that William Marshall married his granddaughter, Elizabeth Cox.

      It would be nice to know where in England William Marshall came from, but there is nothing definite to tell us, although it seems likely he came from Yorkshire or one of the surrounding counties. Pawson himself was from the landed gentry of England, and one source describes his family as one of great antiquity in Yorkshire. John Pawson died in England and was buried in York at a church called St. Mary’s Bishop-hill, the elder. Engraved on his stone there is the following: "Here lyeth buried the Body of JOHN PAWSON Merchant who departed this Life the 4th of August 1677."

      So, we know John Pawson was from Yorkshire and also that the ship that brought William Marshall to Maryland probably operated out of a Yorkshire port city. In addition, we know the names of the other individuals transported to Maryland with William Marshall, but most are so common throughout England they’re not much help in suggesting where they came from. However, one name, Ralph Duncalfe-- is somewhat distinctive. Following his arrival in Maryland, his name appears in several records there, the last time in April 1677 when he helped appraise the estate of Stephen White. An Edmund Duncalfe also appears in Anne Arundel County about this same time, and it seems likely they are related. One English record states that the name Duncalfe was an East Yorkshire surname in the seventeenth century. In fact, there was an Edmund Duncalfe who lived in Hull. He had a son named Humphrey who was apprenticed August 20, 1701 to Elias Pawson of York, and even married Pawson’s daughter Mary in York on October 28, 1716. Interestingly, this Elias was the nephew of John Pawson who brought Marshall and Ralph Duncalfe to Maryland. This is further evidence Marshall may have been from Yorkshire.

      The first mention of William Marshall in the records of Calvert County is the November 7, 1676 administration of the estate of Thomas Cox-Marshall received a payment from the estate. It is believed this Thomas was a son of the James Cox mentioned earlier. This same Thomas Cox had a 500 acres tract of land called "Cox Choice," in Lyons Creek Hundred of Calvert surveyed for him on October 28, 1670. The description noted that it was located on the east side of the Patuxent River at the head of a main branch of Wadsworth Creek. Some 400 acres of this tract later came into the possession of William Marshall’s descendants, and it is thought this came about through his marriage to Thomas Cox’s daughter, Elizabeth Cox.

      Marshall is mentioned next in connection with a tract of 210 acres in Lyons Creek Hundred called "Nichols Chance," surveyed March 10, 1682 for William Nichols. According to the survey, the property adjoined William Marshall, suggesting Marshall was in possession of part of "Cox Choice" by this date.

      On August 5, 1685, Marshall is mentioned again when he appeared in court in Calvert and declared himself the greatest creditor of William Jenkins. Jenkins’ heirs protested, claiming the estate was not insolvent and that administration should have been granted to them instead. But they lost and Marshall was appointed administrator on February 25, 1686.

      William did not live long after this because he died in May 1686, leaving behind a widow, Elizabeth, and a son Thomas. As widows with small children often did, Elizabeth soon remarried to another Calvert County planter named Samuel Clewley.

      Although William Marshall died intestate, it seems he made a will but it could not be located after his death. Robert Wood, who was deposed in the matter on March 6, 1687, testified in court on March 30, 1687 that he wrote a will for Marshall shortly before his death. A Thomas Stevens also testified to this fact the same day. According to Wood,

      "May last. some few days before the death of William Marshall of Calvert, he [Wood] was desired to write a will, and that he gave his son Thomas all his land and also gave Thomas Nelson land to work on during his life and that of his wife, and if Thomas died without issue then his land should go to poor orphans."

      Incidentally, the Thomas Nelson mentioned by Wood must have been a close neighbor to Marshall, because he owned a tract of land surveyed March 10, 1682 called "Nelsons Reserve" on the east side of the Patuxent River in the woods on the north side of Wadsworth Branch close to the tract called "Cox Choice."

      For some reason, Samuel and Elizabeth Clewley decided not to administer Marshall’s estate, and at a court held May 6, 1688, they renounced the administration, stating that they “had not intermeddled with goods and prayed administration be issued to Thomas Tench, of Anne Arundel County, Merchant.

      s a result, John Sunderland and George Cole were ordered to appraise Marshall’s estate. The appraisal they returned to court showed a value of 21 pounds, 12 shillings. Items listed in the inventory included 1 young horse, 2 cows & calves, 2 heifers & calves, 1 two year old heifer, 1 yearling bull, 2 steers, 1 young sow and 3 shoats, 2 old flock beds, 3 iron pots & 2 pair of pot hooks, 3 rundletts [small casks], 2 old axes, 1 tomahawk, 1 handsaw, 1 whimole[?], 1 ogee plane, 1 trowel, part of an old shue pan, 2 pair of scales, 2 guns, 1 ryding [?], 1 riddle [a course sieve, as one for sifting sand in a foundry], 1 pair tongs, 1 candlestick, 3 butts [large cask or barrel for wine/beer/ale], 5 hhd [large cask containing from 63-140 gallons], and a few other items. The inventory also showed debts owed by Marshall’s estate to several individuals that totaled 4,507 pounds of tobacco-the currency of the day.

      According to land records, Samuel Clewley owned several tracts of land in Calvert County. One of these was a 50 acre parcel called "Cox Folly" that had originally been patented to Francis Spencer. It was on the east side of the Patuxent River adjacent to the tract called "Cox Choice." Clewley also owned a 65 acre tract in
      Lyons Creek Hundred called "Defence," which had been resurveyed August 10, 1677 for Richard Hall. How much of this land Clewley obtained by marrying Marshall’s widow is unknown because of losses to the Calvert County deed books.

      Samuel Clewley died in Calvert some time between October 10, 1719, when he drew his will, and February 1, 1720 when it was proved. By his will, Clewley devised to Mary, the daughter of Thomas Marshall, his dwelling-plantation, being a portion of the "Defence," but in the event of her dying without issue, then to Thomas, the "younger son" of Thomas and Margaret Marshall. He also bequeathed personal property to Elizabeth Bowen, and appointed his "son-in-law" [i.e., step-son] Thomas Marshall executor of his estate. There is no mention of his wife, Elizabeth, so it is supposed she died before Samuel. The Elizabeth Bowen mentioned in Clewley’s will was the wife of Nathaniel Bowen of Calvert, and probably a daughter of Clewley by his wife Elizabeth.

      The Thomas Marshall mentioned in Clewley’s will must have been the son mentioned in the will Robert Wood drew for William Marshall, so Thomas must have been born before some time before May 1686. In any case, we know this Thomas was of age by November 21, 1709, when he was named administrator of the estate of Thomas Edwards of Calvert.

      Thomas Marshall Sr. was a communicant of All Saints Parish church located in the northern end of Calvert County. The original church, a log structure, was built between 1693 and 1694. In 1703, it was enlarged by the addition of 15 feet and continued in use until construction of the present church-which still stands today-began in 1774. The All Saints Parish register no longer exists, but some vestry minutes remain and Marshall is mentioned in some of them beginning in the year 1710. According to a record of July 7, 1720, Thomas Marshall was the church warden, a very prestigious position in that day, indicating he was a man of
      considerable influence and standing.

      When Thomas Marshall probated his step-father, Samuel Clewley’s estate, his bondsman was Martin Wells who was born April 15, 1686, so Wells was about the same age as Marshall. In fact, there was a close and continuing relationship between the Marshall and Wells family that continued for several generations, and
      accounts for the frequent use of the Wells name in the Marshall family. Martin’s father was Richard Wells and his mother was named Mary. From the Anne Arundel County land records, we know that Richard Wells was a farrier by trade and that his wife, Mary, was the daughter of Thomas Martin. It is this connection that yields
      the name Martin in both the Wells and Marshall families.

      From Clewley’s will, we know that Thomas Marshall Sr., and his wife Margaret had several children including a son Thomas Marshall Jr., and daughter Mary. Thomas also had an older son, William Marshall, and on February 19, 1731, Thomas Sr. deeded William 51 acres of "Cox Choice." The same day, Thomas Sr. deeded his daughter Elizabeth, wife of Samuel Austin, 67 acres of the same tract. Since William was at least 21 by this date, he was probably born before 1710.

      Thomas Marshall Sr. retained part of "Cox Choice" as his dwelling plantation, and paid rent on it through the year 1763 when he died. An inventory of his estate, taken that year, showed an appraisement of 109 pounds, 3 shillings, and 8 pence. His daughters, Ann Wiley and Mary Stone, were named as next-of-kin. His inventory included livestock, grain, farm implements, household furniture and other items, including 811 nails. The inventory also mentioned 2 slaves, one described as a “sickly Negro woman Rachel about 43 years old (valued at 8 pounds), and a Negro boy Ben about 10 years old (valued at 28 pounds).

      We know that Thomas Sr. had at least two sons-William and Thomas. He also had several daughters. They included Mary (who married John Stone), Elizabeth (who married Samuel Austin), Ann (who married George Wiley) and, possibly, a daughter named Martha who married a man named Lankey or Sankey. There were probably others children as well.

      Of the two sons, William was probably the oldest. He appears in a tax list of Lyons Creek Hundred in Calvert made in 1733 that shows him residing in a household with an Edward Howard and one slave. The two households on this list adjacent to William’s are those of Samuel Austin (probably living on that part of "Cox Choice" given his wife by her father), and Thomas Marshall Sr. This tax list shows Thomas Jr. living in the household of his father, so he may not have been married at this time.

      Not much is known about William other than the fact that he died young, in 1734. His wife Mary was named as administrator of his estate. She was probably a daughter of John Griffith of Calvert. William’s estate was appraised by Henry Austin and Michael Askew, and Thomas Marshall was named as next-of-kin.

      The records indicate that William had a son named Thomas who was taxed on a portion of "Cox Choice," for the years 1753 through 1774, the last year for which Calvert debt books exist. The 1753 debt book for Calvert, which refers to Thomas as the "son of William," shows he was charged 2 shillings rent for a 50 acre portion of "Cox Choice," which would be the land deeded to William in 1731 by Thomas Marshall Sr. The 1755 Calvert debt books list three men named Thomas Marshall, and in this record they are referred to as Thomas Sr., Thomas Jr., and Thomas III.

      Following the death of Thomas Marshall Sr., the records show that Thomas Jr. paid rent on the following tracts during the period 1753 – 1767: "Cox Choice," "Cox Folly," "The Farme," and "Marshalls Addition." "Marshalls Addition" had been surveyed for Thomas Jr. on March 22, 1745. The tract called "The Farme" had been
      resurveyed on 4 Mar 1739 as a 39 acre tract on Hardesty's Creek, and described as running to the land of Thomas Marshall called "Cox's Folly."

      Thomas Marshall Jr. married Elizabeth Griffith, the daughter of John Griffith of Calvert. She was the sister of Mary who married William Marshall. Thomas Jr. died intestate in Calvert in 1766. An inventory of his estate showed an appraisal of 208 pounds, 8 shillings, and 1 pence. It named Darby Sullivan and William Marshall as next-of-kin. It seems likely that Darby Sullivan was a son-in-law and William a son.

      Men by the name of Marshall continued to appear in the records of Calvert County following the death of Thomas Marshall Jr. in 1766, and sorting them all out seems impossible because so many records there have been lost.

      In 1777, Maryland passed a law requiring every male age 18 or older to swear allegiance to the new state. Marshalls who signed in Calvert included Martin, Richard, Henry, William, and a man listed as "Thomas Marshall Jr."

      Members of the family also appear in various records connected with the Revolutionary War. For example, a Calvert County petition dated August 10, 1777, and directed to Maryland Governor Thomas Johnson, protested what was called the "unhappy" removal of James Patterson as captain of one of the local militia
      companies. The petition went on to state that “his successor was totally obnoxious to the county." This petition was signed by Martin Marshall, Richard Marshall, and Thomas Marshall, all of whom were in Patterson’s company. This Richard may be the man who volunteered for "Flying Camp" service and was enlisted July 26, 1776 by Ensign James Somerville. The "Flying Camp" units were formed in the middle
      colonies (Pennsylvania, Delaware and Maryland) as a mobile, strategic reserve of troops to be used in case of British invasion. Interestingly, there was another Calvert man who enlisted in "Flying Camp" service the same day as did Richard Marshall, and his name was Joseph Davis. As will be seen later, Martin Marshall
      named one of his sons Joseph Davis Marshall, so there may be a connection there.

      Martin Marshall is shown again in 1778 in Captain James Grahame’s Company along with a Henry Marshall. Records of Capt. John Mackall’s Company, June 12, 1778, list a Thomas Marshall, while a list of Captain James Williamson’s Company, 1778, list Richard and Thomas Marshall. And a list of Captain Frederick Skinner’s Company, 1778, lists a Thomas Marshall. These men were all privates. However, the name Marshall also appears among the commissioned officers for Calvert. One man named Marshall (no given name recorded) is shown as a Colonel on July 17, 1776, while a John Marshall Jr. is shown as a captain in the 15th Battalion on July 4, 1776.

      It seems that some time before 1781 several of these men moved to Albemarle County, Virginia, but others remained behind in Maryland. A John Marshall appears in tax records of Calvert made in 1782 and 1783. On February 2, 1790, Thomas Marshall was appointed tax commissioner of Calvert County. In 1791, an unpatented land certificate to William Holland Reynolds for 184 acres describes the parcel as at the southeast corner of land of William Marshall and on the line of "Lingans Purchase." According to the records, 100 acres of "Cox Choice" had been resurveyed into part of "Lingans Purchase" on June 22, 1687, so this may indicate this William Marshall was a son of Thomas Marshall Jr.

      As noted earlier, the Marshalls of Calvert attended All Saints Parish Church. A diagram of the arrangement of the pews in this church made in 1800 shows William Marshall, Thomas Stone, and Elizabeth Jane Austin all occupying pew No. 3, for which they paid the sum of 8 pounds per year—in those days, church members paid
      for their pews and the best ones commanded the highest prices.

      The Marshalls that moved to Virginia included brothers Richard, Martin, William, Benjamin and Joseph. Martin remained in Virginia for several years before leaving in 1789 to settle in that part of Stokes County, North Carolina that is now Forsyth. His first land acquisition in Stokes was from Gabriel Waggoner. He later acquired several other tracts, purchasing them from John Morris, John Holbrook, Edward Cooley and David Lindsey. In 1820, Martin sold some of his property to his sons Elias, Richard, and Martin Wells Marshall.

      Martin died in Stokes on September 18, 1824 leaving a will that divided in property among his children. From the wording of the will, it is clear Martin was married twice. The name of his first wife is unknown, but his second wife was Eleanor Boswell, daughter of Matthew Boswell Sr., of Albemarle County, Virginia. The
      Boswells came from Charles County, Maryland.

      From the will and other records, it appears Martin had the following children: William, James, Thomas Riley, Nancy (married Benjamin Briggs), Betsy (married Henry Samuel), Verlinda (married Abraham Vanhoy), Matthew Tandy, Martin Wells, Joseph Davis, Elias, "Polly" (married John Vance), and Richard.

      So, who was Martin Marshall’s father? The truthful answer is that we don’t know. Our best guess for now, based on circumstantial evidence, is that Martin and his brothers are children of the man we have called Thomas Marshall III. This guess is based on dates of birth of descendants of William Marshall the immigrant, the meager land records left in Calvert County, Maryland (primarily Debt Books and Rent Rolls) and the various probate records that remain. It would be nice to have a more definitive answer. Perhaps someone in the future will take a closer look at the evidence and either confirm our current theory, or come up with a better one. Certainly, there is still a lot of room for additional research on both the Marshall lines and others that are connected to it, including Southern and Waggoner to mention but a couple.

  • Sources 
    1. [S824193] Marshalls of Calvert County Maryland and Their Descendants, Michael L. Marshall, (June 1992), B0006OWDM.

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Ancestry records for Martin Marshall