Early Colonial Settlers of Southern Maryland and Virginia's Northern Neck Counties

Leonard Gov Calvert

Male 1610 - 1647  (36 years)


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  • Name Leonard Gov Calvert 
    Birth 21 Nov 1610  London, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Death 9 Jun 1647  St. Mary's County, Maryland Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I3982  Tree1
    Last Modified 5 Apr 2024 

    Father George Sir (1st Lord Baltimore) Calvert,   b. 1579, Danby Wiske, Yorkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this locationd. 15 Apr 1632, London, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 53 years) 
    Relationship natural 
    Mother Anne (Lady) Mynne,   b. 20 Nov 1579, England Find all individuals with events at this locationd. Aug 1622, London, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 42 years) 
    Relationship natural 
    Marriage 22 Nov 1604  St. Peter's Church, Cornhil, London, Middlesex Co. England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F3259  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Anne Brent,   b. 1622, Larke Stoke, Admington, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this locationd. 1646, St. Mary's County, Maryland Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 24 years) 
    Marriage 1642  England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Children 
     1. William Calvert,   b. 4 Jul 1643, Battle, England Find all individuals with events at this locationd. 13 May 1682, Wicomico River, Charles County, Maryland Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 38 years)  [Father: natural]
     2. Anne Calvert,   b. 23 Jun 1645, Yorkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this locationd. 1714, Calvert County, Maryland Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 68 years)  [Father: natural]
    Family ID F1620  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart
    Last Modified 5 Apr 2024 

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsMarriage - 1642 - England Link to Google Earth
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  • Notes 
    • ===
      Calvert, Leonard, (nunc.) St. Mary's Co., ; 14th June, 1644.
      To James Lindsay, Richard Willen, Mrs. Temperance Pippett, of Virginia, and godson Leo. Green, personalty.
      Margaret Brent, execx. and residuary legatee.
      Test: Francis Ankell, Gov. Thomas Green. 1. 9.
      ===
      From Paul Tobler's notes:
      According to Descendants of Virginia Calverts
      Entry under Leonard's name under his father's (George) section

      Born prob. 1610/11, was his father's second son. Lord Baltimore's first mention of Leonard in his will, places him with the three younger sons to whom he left "monies to be paied unto them att theire severall ages of One and Twenty... respectively." Towards the end of his will he says:
      "Memorandum upon further Consideracon my will and pleasure is That my sonne Leonard Calvert in regard that he is allreadie a man and my second sonne, he shall have Nyne hundred pounds to be paide him within sixe monthes after my death." The baptisms of St. Martins in the Fields carries the following: Josiah Caulford fil Mr. Geoge, Nov.21, 1610. There is no doubt in my mind that this was the record for Leonard Calvert. It is not the first time that an "L" has been called a "J." and a poorly written "Leonard" might easily be mistaken for "Josiah."
      Entry under Leonard's section Bap. prob. Nov 21, 1610 (St. Martins in the Fields; d. June 9, 1647, St. Mary's Md.; m. abt 1643, prob. in England
      In the early part of his father's will, dated 14th April, 1632, Leonard Calvert is spoken of as being under age along with his brothers George and Henry. The latter part of this will changes that statement and says:"That my sonne Leonard Calvert in regard that he is already a man and my second son, he shall have Nyne hundred pounds to be paid him within sixe monthes after my death,"etc. (See will of Lord Baltimore in Part I.) This places his birth at 1610 or 1611.

      No record has been found as yet of the time or place of Leonard Calvert's marriage, nor of the name of his wife, which has frequently been given as Anne Brent. The following "Gleanings from English Wills" by Mrs. Russel Hastings in Maryland Magazine, Vol. 22, p.307,says:
      "The identity of Leonard Calvert's wife (now that it is known that Margaret Brent's sister Anne was a non-juring spinster in 1651, ten years after the birth of Leonard Calvert's children) is undiscovered, although she was quite possibly a member of the prolific Brent family."
      None of the Brents showed any interest in the children of Leonard Calvert, by will or otherwise, as it seems natural they would have done, had the children been nephew and niece.
      Leonard Calvert accompanied his father to Newfoundland, and in August, 1628, with his brother-in-law, William Peaseley, returned to England where he petitioned the king that his father might have a share in certain prizes taken from the French by the ships Benediction and Victory. After the death of his father his brother Cecilius, Second Lord Baltimore, appointed him Governor of Maryland. The Calvert Papers state that he sailed from Gravesend, England, for Maryland with his brother George and other colonists, October 18, 1633. (See the First Settlement of Maryland, Part I) Proceeding to Cowes, Isle of Wight, they took on Fathers White and Altham, and lay there at Cowes until November 22, 1633, when they weighed anchor and sailed for the Needles, the southwest point of the Isle of Wight, and began their adventurous voyage across the Atlantic in the two ships the Ark and the Dove. They reached Maryland March 3, 1634, and landed founding the city of St. Mary's, March 27, 1634, which was named in honor of the Virgin Mary, it being the Feast of the Annunciation. (Spark's American Biography, 2d Series, Vol. 9, states: "The intended name for Maryland was Crescentia, but in compliment to the Queen, Henrietta Maria, a Catholic, daughter of Henry the Fourth of France, the name was changed to Maryland."
      Neill in Founders of Maryland says: "His life as Governor of Maryland was not distinguished for boldness and originality, and his relative George Evelyn, the Commander of Kent Island, once sneeringly said, 'Who was his grandfather but a grazier? What was his father? What was Leonard Calvert himself at school but a dunce and a blockhead?'"
      On April 1, 1643, before sailing for England on a summons from his brother, Lord Cecil Calvert, Leonard Calvert issued a proclamation appointing Mr. Giles Brent to be Lieutenant Governor, Admiral and Chief Captain of the Province during his absence. Sailing from Maryland about April 1, 1643, Governor Leonard Calvert must have arrived in England in the late spring of that year. Returning to the Colony in the summer or early fall of 1644, probably places the date of his marriage almost immediately after his arrival in England, the birth of his son William as of 1644, and his daughter Anne as of 1645-this latter after his return to Maryland. No record of his marriage nor name of his wife has been found. The first mention of Govenor Leonard Calvert's son William Calvert is contained in the record of a suit recorded in Maryland Probate Records, 1658-1662. (Also see Chronicles of Colonial Maryland by James Walter Thomas, Page 62) The suit brought by "the Lord Proprietary, guardian of William Calvert (then in England), son and heir-at-law of Governor Leonard Calvert, vs. Thomas Stone, son, and Verlinda Stone, widow of Governor William Stone," for the recovery of Governor Calvert's house and lot, at St. Mary's, and which Stone in 1650 had purchased of Margaret Brent, executrix of Governor Calvert, under the supposition that she had the power to convey it. The verdict was for the plaintiff for the land and costs-thus establishing the fact of both marriage and issue. Calvert Papers, Vol.I, Page 244, states: September, 1663, Governor Charles Calvert wrote his father, Lord Cecil Calvert: "Att the same time my Cousin William's sister arrived here and is now at my house and has the care of my household affairs. As yett no good match does present, but I hope in a short time she may find one to her own content and yr. Lspp's desire." In 1889, the State of Maryland purchased the eastern half of the old State House lot at St. Mary's to commemorate the spot where "civilization and christianity were first introduced into our state," erected on it an imposing and classic building knowns as the "Saint Mary's Female Seminary."
      Since then the state of Maryland has done tardy justice to Maryland's first Governor, Leonard Calvert, by erecting to his memory a handsome granite shaft, placing it on the site of the "Old Mulberry"; and at the same time, in order to perpetuate the foundation lines of the old State House, planted at each of its twelve corners a massive granite marker. "The Shaft is thirty-six feet high and six feet square at the base. Above the inscription blocks are two bronze medallion plates bearing the Coat-of-Arms of Maryland." (Thomas' Colonial Maryland.) The monument bears the following inscription:

      To the Memory of
      LEONARD CALVERT
      First Governor of Maryland
      This monument is
      Erected by
      The State of Maryland
      Erected on the site of the
      OLD MULBERRY TREE
      Under which the
      First Colonists of Maryland Assembled
      To Establish a Government
      Where the Persecuted and Oppreseed of Every Creed
      And every Clime might repose in peace and security,
      Adore their common God, and enjoy the priceless
      Blessings of civil and religious liberty.

      Leonard Calvert
      Second Son of George Calvert,
      First Baron of Baltimore
      and Anne, his wife,
      Led the First Colonists to Maryland
      November 22, 1633 - March 3, 1634
      Founded Saint Mary's March 27, 1634
      Died June 9, 1647
      By his wisdom, justice, and fidelity, he fostered the
      Infancy of the colony, guided it through great
      Perils, and dying, left it at peace.
      The Descendants and Successors of the men
      He governed, here record
      Their gratefule recognition of his virtues
      November MDCCCXC

      The evidence that Leonard married Anne Brent is strong - very strong - but unproven, probably because of the religious envrionment at the time which caused many Catholic marriages to be made secretly and without written records.

      Anne's sister, Margaret, was a remarkable, prominent and colorful character in her own right: an attorney (!) and very vocal advcate of womens' right to vote. She served both as Leonard's personal attorney and as Lord Baltimore's (Cecil) representative to the legislative body.
      As regards your question specifically, I only know that the Brents, quite aside from association with the Calverts, were a large and very influential family both in England and in Maryland. Also quite controversial - Margaret was not particularly different from her relatives in that respect. It is highly likely that Brent descendants remain in the Maryland / Virginia region.
      You might find my "Calvert Chronicles" (URL noted in the signature below) of some interest. The Chapter on "Cecil & Leonard" goes into more detail and includes portraits of Leonard and Margaret (the latter quite clearly "reading the Riot Act" to a room full of men)
      Hope this helps to at least give you some general direction. Good luck
      Pete Faoro & Shirley Calvert-Faoro
      Visit "The Calvert Chronicles" at http://calvert.cjb dot net

      Father: George * CALVERT b: 1579 in In or Near Kiplin, Yorkshire, England (Bolton Castle?)
      Mother: Anne * MYNNE b: 20 NOV 1579 in Bexley, Hertfordshire, England

      Marriage 1 Anne * BRENT b: BET. 1612 - 1622 in Admington, Gloucestershire, England
      Married: 1642 2
      Note: George Calvert , cybercat@ntr dot net writes: ..."I have not any proof of Leonard's marriage to Ann. The belief has long been that Leonard Calvert did mar a "Brent", and many of us continue to show "Anne Brent" as being his wife. Actually, he probably married one of Ann's cousins, since there is written evidence that Anne was sitll using her maiden name (Brent) long after Leonard's death.
      Children
      William * CALVERT b: 1642 in MD or Yorkshire, England
      Anne CALVERT b: 1644 in Yorkshire, England

      Sources:
      Paul Tobler e-mail tobler@hctc dot net
      ===
      1650-1652 Northumberland County, Virginia Deed & Order Book; [Antient Press]; Page 47
      Att a Court held at Mr. HUGH LEE's House, County of Northumberland, the 10th day of January 1650/1
      Whereas it doth appeare unto this Court that MRS. MARGARET BRENT, Executrix of LEONARD CALVERT Esqr, deceased, doth owe out of the Estate of the deceased for Gun Powder and Shott, wch: was lent by ROBERT SHARPE onto Mr. CALVERT in the REBELLION of MARYLAND, the Court doth therefore order that the said MRS. MARGARET BRENT doe forthwith pay unto the said ROBERT SHARPE Three hundred and Fifty pounds of tobacco in casks else execucon wch: is paid as ROBERT SHARPE acknowledged in Court

      ===
      Contributed by: James Hughes

      URL: http://www.mdarchives.state.md.us/megafile/msa/speccol/sc2900/sc2908/00000 1/000004/html/am4--388.html
      URL title: Judicial and Testamentary Business of the Provincial Court, 1637-1650Volume 4, Page 388
      Note: Liber A. Page 6. Junis.
      Mrs Margarett Brent brought in acct of the estate of Mr Leon: Caluert deceased, as followeth.

      Debr

      ffor my owne Sallary for 271 60 l Tob: receaued & layd out att 20 l pr cent. 5432
      By returne of a siluer cup apraysed, & not apperteyning to the estate 0150
      By Dr Waidrons ffee 1250
      By phisick 0309
      To Tho: Mathewes for Mithridate & wax-lights 01 10
      ffor his Hers-cloath 0437
      ffor a Beefe, A ueale & other necessaries for his Buriall 1 200
      By a Bill payd to Nathaniel Pope 0197
      By 2 Bills payd to Anthony Rawlins. 0600
      By payd for poultry & eggs for him 0100
      By a Bill payd to Gerard fford 0200
      By prouision to carry Dr Waldron, downe to Virginia 0080
      By more payd to Anthony Rawlins 0140
      By 12 yds canuas payd Marks Pheypo, borrowed by Mr Caluert 01 80
      By payd to Barth: Phillips for Beaur borrowed by him. 0110.
      By payd by Bill to waiter Beane 1150
      By payd to Mr Pyle 1 4s in money & cloath borrowed of him. 0668.
      By payd to Daniel Clocker 0127.
      By payd to Geoffrey Power of his last yeares Sallary 0340.
      By payd to the Soldiers out of his estate 9522
      By payd to Jno Shirtley 0300
      By payd to Mrs Mary Brent Kittamagund 0748.
      It fforty eight pownd of Beaur

      Credr

      By the first Inuentory apraysed 21524
      By a Recognizance from Willm Smoote 02000
      By goods later appraysed 00800
      By receaued from Jno Hollis 00786
      By receaued from Mr Giles Brent 00470
      By receaued from Jno Harwood 00160
      By Leuies receaued 01270
      By receaued from Capt Jno Price 00150
      By nailes Sold 00100
      By the Ld Baltemore Debr to the estate layd out in Mr Caluerts life 18548.
      By 1 exequuon assigd on Capt Cornewalleys by Capt Giles Brent 02800
      By Bill from Capt ffleete 05061.
      By 1 Bill from Tho: Hebden 00340.
      By 1 Bill from Hen: Brooke for a shallop of 23 foote by the Keele
      By acct from Robert Kadger 00211
      By acct from Tho: Oliuer 00074
      By acct from Edw. Packer 00350
      By acct from ffrancis Posey 00024
      By acct from Mr Lewger 01464
      By one Small Smith's Vice 00100
      ===
      The Forgotten Fight for America, Archaeology, January/February 2005, Volume 58, Number 1, page48-50
      © 2005 by the Archaeological Institute of America
      RELIGIOUS PREJUDICE ALSO PLAYED a role in the struggle for dominance. In seventeenth-century Maryland, faith and social divisions, exacerbated by civil war in England, led to rebellions that tore the colony apart. In recent excavations, archaeologists have uncovered the homes of Nathaniel Pope, a leader of the revolt in the mid-1640s, and of Charles Calvert, third Lord Baltimore, who ruled the colony until an uprising in the 1680s. Finds from the sites provide insights on the course of the first rebellion and how Calvert used his residence to symbolically reinforce his right to rule.
      The Calvert's, who were granted the colony by Charles I, envisioned Maryland as a manorial society of large land hold and tenant farmers living in a spirit of religious toleration, seeds of division were embedded in the colony from the start. Many of the elite were Catholic, like the Calvert's, while many of the lower class was Protestant.
      The first crisis took place when the war that erupted between Charles I and Parliament in 1642 crossed Atlantic. The Calvert's, with their ties to the royal court were targeted by a group aiming to install a pro-Parliament, Protestant government. Among those involved were Richard Ingle, captain of the tobacco ship Reformation, and Protestant freemen such as Nathaniel Pope.
      Ingle received a commission from Parliament authorizing the capture of vessels from royalist ports. On February 14, 1645, he sailed to St. Mary's and seized a Dutch trading ship. It was the beginning of what became known as "The Plundering Time." After a brief resistance, the governor, Leonard Calvert, retreated to Virginia. Houses of those loyal to the Calvert's were ransacked and their property stolen (the loot being taken to Pope's home in St. Mary's). Many fled; others were killed in fighting.
      The rebels fortified Pope's home, and its excavation has revealed a sophisticated pentagonal ditch and palisade with three bastions enclosing the house. But although the north and cast sides were carefully laid out, the south and west were not. Similarly, the ditch was very shallow on the west side, barely two feet deep. Archaeologist Timothy Riordan believes that the plan and initial work may have been directed by Ingle, while later, less competent work was done after he returned to England in the spring of 1645. The ditch also appears to have been quickly filled in with domestic debris, animal bones, and oyster shells. All this suggests that any threat to the rebels from Calvert faded quickly.
      Indeed, it was nearly a year before Leonard Calvert was able to assemble a large enough force to return and reestablish control. By then the colony was shattered. St. Mary's population was reduced from 500 to fewer than 100, less than when it was first settled.
      Although the colony recovered, by the mid-1680s the tobacco economy was in a severe depression; discontent and old antagonisms resurfaced. Many Protestant colonists strongly supported Charles Calvert, Leonard's uncle and the third Lord Baltimore, but others felt that they would never benefit from his political patronage. These men, known as the Protestant Associators, spread rumors of combined Catholic and Indian plots to wipe out Protestant settlers. In July 1689, when Baltimore was in England, the Associators marched on St. Mary's City and seized the State House, then went on to take over Calvert's plantation at Mattapany.
      Beginning in 1666, Calvert had set about building a major plantation and port at Mattapany. Conventional wisdom among scholars was that nearly all planters in the Chesapeake region, even the wealthiest, lived in impermanent houses with timber frames set directly into the ground. But excavations at Mattapany during the I990s by archaeologists Ed Chaney and Julia King revealed massive brick foundations of a house at least two stories tall that measured 25 by 50 feet, and had a tile roof, glass windows secured by lead frames, plaster walls, and fancy fireplace tiles. Calvert also shifted the colony's weapons magazine to Mattapany (excavations there yielded hundreds of pieces of shot and a gun barrel). Though St. Mary's City continued to function as the legislative capital, he governed from Mattapany. "A colonist approaching Mattapany, and most with any business on the Patuxent River had to stop there, would see, perched atop a 20-foot bluff overlooking the water, the colony's principal magazine and, rising behind it, Calvert's impressive brick dwelling. This was an extremely symbolic landscape, and there is no doubt that he intended it to he," says King.
      Excavation also revealed traces of a log palisade around the house. "The logs were set only about two feet in the ground," says King, "suggesting it had been built hastily. It may have been erected either by Calvert loyalists when they learned the Associators were marching on Mattapany or by the Associators after they seized it." In England, Lord Baltimore tried to take his colony back, but King William refused, preferring to take control himself, and sent a royal governor to Maryland in 1691.
      ===
      URL: http://mdroots.thinkport.org/library/leonardcalvert.asp

      Leonard Calvert (1606-1647)

      Leonard Calvert, lead the sailing expedition of the Ark and Dove to Maryland in 1633. Leonard's older brother, Cecil Calvert, Second Lord Baltimore, had appointed Leonard to be Maryland's first Governor. Leonard carried with him a letter containing Cecil's "Instructions" These "Instructions" described how to establish Maryland's first elected Assembly and provided a set of laws for the colony.

      As Governor, Leonard was in charge of Maryland's militia, sea forces, court system and finances1. When the colonists landed in Virginia, Leonard hired Captain Henry Fleet to act as a guide. Leonard knew that Capt. Fleet would be a good guide, because Fleet had lived with Native Americans and spoke their languages2.

      In February 1634, the two ships approached the Chesapeake Bay for the first time. Leonard and Captain Fleet decided to go out and meet with the head chieftains of the Native Americans before the colonists landed. The Indians called their head chieftains by the title werowance. The Werowance of the Yoacomoco Indians agreed to sell a village to the Calverts in exchange for gifts, trading guarantees and protection from their enemies, the Susquehannock and Iroquois Indians. The Yoacomoco village property purchased by Leonard became the English settlement of St. Mary's City on March 27, 1634.3.

      Leonard's years as Governor of the new colony were often difficult. William Claiborne went to the King of England and claimed that the Calvert family had no right to land in Maryland. Claiborne and his fellow Kent Islanders had settled there and established a trading post with the Indians in 1631. King Charles I ruled in favor of the Calverts and this made Claiborne and other Virginians enemies of the Maryland colony. The Susquehannock Indians also raided and attacked English settlements as well as Piscataway Indian villages during the 1630s and early 1640s.

      Leonard did not stay in Maryland throughout the time he was Governor. Twice he left the colony to visit England in 1641/42 and 1643/44. He had a family in England, but because Catholic marriages were kept secret in England we do not know for certain who his wife was. Some historians believe that Leonard's wife was Anne Brent, sister of Margaret and Giles Brent4. We do know that Leonard had a son named William and a daughter named Anne who grew up in England.

      To make matters worse for Leonard, the English Civil War came to the shores of the Chesapeake Bay in the 1640s. Parliamentary supporter, Captain Richard Ingle and his men attacked and plundered St. Mary's City in 1645. Ingle captured some of Maryland's leaders. Some historians believe that Captain Ingle coordinated his attack with William Claiborne5.

      Certainly, Ingle wanted to claim the Maryland colony for England's Parliament. Leonard escaped capture and controlled Maryland's armies from a headquarters in Virginia. Leonard and his militia restored Proprietary control of the Maryland colony in 1647. However, Leonard died of an illness in the summer of the same year. Before he died, Leonard wrote a will naming Margaret Brent, the executor of his estate. As executor, Margaret had to follow Leonard's command to "Take all & pay all." This meant that he told Margaret to use money from both his estate and his brother, Lord Baltimore's estate to pay the militia men who had defended Maryland. Leonard's will also named Thomas Greene as the new Governor of Maryland.

      1Timothy B. Riordan, The Plundering Time: Maryland in the English Civil War, 1642-1650. St. Mary's City, Maryland, forthcoming publication. St. Mary's City, Maryland, (June 1, 1997), page 2-7.

      2Frederick J. Fausz, "Present at the 'Creation'," Maryland Historical Magazine vol. 79 (Spring 1984): 15.

      3Fausz, "Present at the 'Creation'," 15.

      4For example, see Edward C. Papenfuse, et al, Biographical Dictionary of the Maryland Legislature, 190.

      5Timothy B. Rioridan discusses evidence for Richard Ingle and William Claiborne's collaboration on the attack, "The Plundering Time," 10-11 to 10-17. For a general description of the attacks on Maryland during the English Civil War, see Aubrey C. Land, Colonial Maryland - A History (Millwood, NY: KTO Press, 1981), 45-49.

      LINKED DOCUMENTS OR IMAGES:
      Click to see a picture of Leonard Calvert, by [Edwin] Tunis, Leonard Calvert, charcoal drawing, Tunis Collection, Maryland State Archives. MSA SC1480-1-1.

      Click to see a picture of Leonard Calvert Founding the Maryland colony's government, by [Edwin] Tunis, Founding the Government, charcoal drawing, Tunis Collection, Maryland State Archives. MSA SC1480-1-7.

      Leonard Calvert by Florence MacKubin (1914), oil on canvas, 30 x 25", said to be after a seventeenth century portrait in a private collection. MSA SC 1545-1106.

      Leonard Calvert's call for an Assembly of Freemen in St. Mary's City, Maryland, April 15, 1637. GOVERNOR AND COUNCIL (Proceedings) 1637-1838, Liber Z, Folio 4 Archives of Maryland, MSA S1071

      SOURCES:
      Fausz, Frederick J. "Present at the 'Creation': The Chesapeake World That Greeted the Maryland Colonists." Maryland Historical Magazine vol. 79 (Spring 1984): 7-20.

      Papenfuse, Edward C., et al. A Biographical Dictionary of the Maryland Legislature, 1635-1789, 2 vols. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979.

      Riordan, Timothy B. The Plundering Time: Maryland in the English Civil War, 1642-1650. St. Mary's City, Maryland, forthcoming publication.

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